Romana Borja-Santos, in Jornal Público, 9 de Janeiro de 2017
"Investigação do IPO de Lisboa estuda efeitos positivos que alimentos podem ter no tratamento dos tumores. Se o estudo continuar a ter bons resultados, doses de quimioterapia poderão ser reduzidas.
Que relação há entre a casca da laranja, o agrião, os brócolos e o cancro? Há cada vez mais dados que indicam que estes três alimentos são aquilo a que se chama nutracêuticos – ou seja, alimentos com nutrientes que podem ter um efeito terapêutico em doenças, como as oncológicas. É isso mesmo que tem estado a comprovar uma equipa do Instituto Português de Oncologia (IPO) de Lisboa. No entanto, desengane-se quem ache que a solução passa por incluir na alimentação grandes quantidades destes três produtos. Os efeitos conseguidos nos tumores do cólon e do recto resultam da utilização de extractos concentrados da casca da laranja, do agrião e dos brócolos e, para já, os testes não são em pessoas mas sim em células cancerosas.
“Estamos a desenvolver os testes em linhas celulares e num modelo tridimensional para se aproximar o mais possível ao modelo in vivo, isto é, mais semelhante aos doentes”, explicou ao PÚBLICO Cristina Albuquerque, bioquímica, investigadora do IPO e responsável pela equipa que estuda os nutracêuticos. “O estudo dos nutracêuticos enquadra-se no nosso objectivo de identificar novos alvos terapêuticos e novas terapêuticas, tanto sintéticas como naturais”, acrescentou Branca Cavaco, directora da Unidade de Investigação em Patobiologia Molecular do IPO, onde se insere esta equipa. O projecto está também a ser feito em parceria com Teresa Serra, do Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológico (iBET).
“Tivemos resultados bastante promissores”, garantiu Cristina Albuquerque, que explicou que o extracto da casca de laranja conseguiu inibir a divisão das células de cancro do cólon com que estavam a trabalhar, assim como “induziu a morte celular” de células estaminais. Segundo a investigadora, estes resultados em células estaminais são especialmente importantes, já que se reconhece que costumam estar na base da resistência dos tumores aos tratamentos com quimioterapia.
Redução das doses de quimioterapia
As experiências foram feitas só com os extractos e as células e também com os extractos, as células e a quimioterapia mais usual nestes cancros. Em todos os casos, o extracto da casca de laranja melhorou os resultados. O mesmo se conseguiu com o extracto de agrião e de brócolos, ainda que as substâncias em causa sejam diferentes. Se os estudos avançarem e continuarem a ter resultados positivos, Cristina Albuquerque sublinha que poderemos utilizar estes extractos para reduzir a dose de quimioterapia convencional, diminuindo também os efeitos secundários dos tratamentos hoje utilizados.
Esta é uma das mais recentes investigações do IPO de Lisboa e surgiu no âmbito do iNOVA4Health, um programa de investigação que pretende estimular parcerias na procura de terapias personalizadas. No entanto, está longe de ser o único projecto a decorrer. “Temos cinco grandes grupos de investigação no IPO, onde a investigação está intimamente ligada à actividade médica. Estudamos muito as formas esporádicas e familiares de cancro e andamos à procura de novos alvos terapêuticos”, sintetizou ao PÚBLICO Paula Chaves, directora do Centro de Investigação do IPO.
A médica anatomopatologista recordou que o IPO nasceu em 1923 como “centro para o estudo e o tratamento do cancro”. Um facto que é, aliás, destacado no livro IPO Lisboa – 90 anos a investigar, apresentado nesta segunda-feira, e que resume a história de investigação do instituto. O livro foi escrito por Edward Limbert, endocrinologista aposentado do IPO que dedicou grande parte da sua carreira também à investigação.
Paula Chaves considera que é esta ligação entre investigação e prática clínica que permite que o IPO consiga cada vez melhores resultados com os seus doentes. “Procuramos compreender melhor os mecanismos [das doenças] para poder actuar em termos terapêuticos tanto na prevenção como em carcinomas avançados”, explicou. Branca Cavaco corrobora que neste campo da genética a tecnologia tem permitido avanços tremendos: o IPO tem mais de 7000 famílias registadas no centro dedicado ao risco familiar de cancro e tem sido possível identificar variantes genéticas responsáveis pelo aparecimento de determinados cancros. Com isso, já conseguiram, por exemplo, remover a tiróide a crianças antes do tumor surgir.
As três principais áreas de estudo do IPO
Um dos projectos que envolve diferentes grupos de investigação dedica-se a identificar novos genes responsáveis por formas familiares de cancro utilizando a tecnologia de sequenciação de nova geração em cancros da mama, ovários, cólon e recto e da tiróide. Estão registadas na Clínica de Risco Familiar do IPO cerca de 7000 famílias com cancro e os genes responsáveis pela predisposição para cancro nestas famílias ainda não são conhecidos na totalidade. A identificação permite um diagnóstico precoce e aconselhamento genético.
Novos alvos terapêuticos
A sequenciação genética de nova geração também está a ser utilizada para perceber que alterações estão presentes nos tumores e como reagiram esses mesmos tumores aos vários tratamentos, para potenciar a utilização dos medicamentos nos novos doentes que tenham tumores semelhantes. A ideia é conseguir uma “implementação de terapêuticas mais personalizadas”, explica Branca Cavaco.
Estudos em modelos tridimensionais
“Os modelos animais existentes para estudo do cancro não são suficientemente preditivos em relação à eficácia dos fármacos, muitos têm falhado em ensaios clínicos” na fase em que são testados em pessoas, segundo Branca Cavaco. O IPO tem utilizado modelos de investigação tridimensionais com culturas de células humanas que permitem “mimetizar a biologia tumoral” e chegar a resultados mais aproximados aos que se vão conseguir na prática clínica."
|Livestock are responsible for consuming the majority|
of the world's grains and soy crops.
Mimi Bekhech, 31.01.2016
"We've come to the end of World Week for the Abolition of Meat, but people in the west still won't make a simple change that could change the fortunes of the whole world.
The world's hungry would no longer be hungry
There would more land available for our growing population
Billions of animals would avoid a lifetime of suffering
The risk of dangerous antibiotic resistance would reduce
The NHS would be under less strain
Stuffed with nutty, fruity rice
“Oven-baked pumpkin is beautiful with spices, like in this really impressive veggie dish ”
Cooks In1H 30M
Difficulty Not too tricky
Vegetables, Halloween/Bonfire Night, Gluten-free, Vegetarian
Nutrition per serving
Calories 587 29%
Fat 48.3g 69%
Saturates 7.4g 37%
Protein 5.9g 13%
Carbs 32.3g 12%
Sugars 17.9g 20%
Salt 0.93g 16%
Of an adult's reference intake
1 pumpkin, about 1kg
2 cloves garlic, peeled
1 red onion , peeled and finely chopped
1 small handful black olives, stoned and chopped
2 sprigs of fresh rosemary, leaves finely chopped
1 dried chilli
freshly ground black pepper
½ teaspoon ground nutmeg
½ teaspoon ground cinnamon
50 g basmati rice , washed and drained
75 g dried cranberries
50 g shelled pistachio nuts
1 tangerine , zest of
200 ml organic vegetable stock
Pumpkins are so versatile, the things you can do with them are endless! Their flavour goes well with chilli, nutmeg and sage. If you’ve never cooked one before, you’re in for a real treat.
Preheat the oven to 230ºC/450ºF/gas 8. Cut the lid off the pumpkin and reserve it. Scoop out the seeds with a spoon and keep them to one side. Make the hollow where the seeds were a little bigger by scooping out some more pumpkin flesh. Finely chop this pumpkin flesh and one of the garlic cloves. Heat a frying pan over a medium heat. Pour in a splash of olive oil, then add the chopped pumpkin, chopped garlic, onion, olives, and half the rosemary. Cook gently for 10 minutes or so until the pumpkin has softened.
Meanwhile, place the whole garlic clove and the remaining rosemary in a pestle and mortar. Crumble in the dried chilli, add a good pinch of salt, pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon and bash until you have a paste. Add a little olive oil to loosen up the mixture and then rub the inside of the pumpkin with it.
Season the cooked pumpkin mixture and stir in the rice, cranberries, pistachios and tangerine zest with a pinch each of nutmeg and cinnamon. Mix thoroughly then add the vegetable stock, bring to the boil and simmer for 3 minutes (no longer or the rice will end up overcooked later).
Tear off a sheet of tin foil that’s large enough to wrap the pumpkin in a double layer and lay on top of a baking tray. Place the pumpkin on top and spoon the rice mixture into it, then place its lid back on. Rub the skin with a little olive oil, wrap it up in the foil and bake in the oven for about an hour. The pumpkin is ready when you can easily push a knife into it. Bring it to the table and open it up in front of everyone. Cut it into thick wedges and tuck in, leaving the skin. Serve with seasonal greens.
With easy homemade dressing and nuts
“This just goes to show that even the simplest green salad can pack a real flavour punch ”
Cooks In 10 minutes
Difficulty Super easy
Vegetables, Dairy-free, Vegan, Vegetarian
Nutrition per serving
Calories 94 5%
Fat 7.9g 11%
Saturates 1.1g 6%
Protein 1.8g 4%
Carbs 2.7g 1%
Sugars 2.1g 2%
Of an adult's reference intake
1 handful fresh basil leaves
½ head Boston lettuce , or small red leaf lettuce
½ heart romaine
½ cup sprouted cress or alfafa
3 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
1 tablespoon red wine vinegar
½ teaspoon Dijon or English mustard
⅛ teaspoon sea salt
freshly ground black pepper
½ cup chopped toasted walnuts , or your favourite nuts
Chopped salads are incredibly simple to make, you have to give them a go. If nothing else, they can offer you some chopping practice, so why not make something tasty while you’re practicing your knife skills? Anyone can make these salads, just make sure you use a good, sharp chef’s knife and your biggest chopping board – and watch your fingers!
Get yourself a big chopping board and a large sharp knife. It’s best to start by chopping the harder, crunchier veggies first, so trim and chop your scallions and slice your cucumber. Slice your basil. Bring it all into the centre of the board, and continue chopping and mixing together.
Add the lettuce leaves, and cress or alfalfa to the board. When everything is well chopped, you’ll have a big mound of salad on the board.
Make a well in the middle and drizzle in the extra virgin olive oil and red wine vinegar. Add the mustard and the salt and pepper. Sprinkle with nuts. Mix up so everything gets well coated and serve on the board or in a bowl.
This makes a nice addition to any main dish such as Barbecued chicken, Spaghetti and meatballs or Old-school pork chops with apples.
- What I want to show you here is that the sky’s the limit when it comes to the different ingredients you can add to a chopped salad – you can use whatever’s available.
- The only rule I would give you is to always include a couple of handfuls of crunchy lettuce to give your salad a really good texture. Try out different things, and don’t feel obliged to use the same old stuff all the time. Bell peppers, tomatoes, herb sprigs, a peeled and pitted avocado . . . you can get any or all of these into a chopped salad.
- Basil works well in this salad, but so do lots of other soft fresh herbs, such as chives, chervil, or mint.
- For a bit of extra crunch, simply toast some nuts in a warm pan, but watch them as once they start to go brown they can burn very quickly.
|Illustration by Nate Kitch|
por George Monbiot.
"Nothing hits the planet as hard as rearing animals. Caring for it means cutting out meat, dairy and eggs.
The world can cope with 7 or even 10 billion people. But only if we stop eating meat. Livestock farming is the most potent means by which we amplify our presence on the planet. It is the amount of land an animal-based diet needs that makes it so destructive.
An analysis by the farmer and scholar Simon Fairlie suggests that Britain could easily feed itself within its own borders. But while a diet containing a moderate amount of meat, dairy and eggs would require the use of 11m hectares of land (4m of which would be arable), a vegan diet would demand a total of just 3m. Not only do humans need no pasture, but we use grains and pulses more efficiently when we eat them ourselves, rather than feed them to cows and chickens.
This would enable 15m hectares of the land now used for farming in Britain to be set aside for nature. Alternatively, on a vegan planet, Britain could feed 200 million people. Extending this thought experiment to the rest of the world, it’s not hard to see how gently we could tread if we stopped keeping animals. Rainforests, savannahs, wetlands, magnificent wildlife can live alongside us, but not alongside our current diet.
Because we have failed to understand this in terms of space, we believe we can solve the ethical problems caused by eating animals by switching from indoor production to free-range meat and eggs. Nothing could be further from the truth. Free-range farming is kinder to livestock but crueller to the rest of the living world.
When people criticise farming, they usually preface it with the word intensive. But extensive farming, almost by definition, does greater harm to the planet: more land is needed to rear the same amount of food. Keeping cattle or sheep on ranches, whether in the Amazon, the US, Australia or the hills of Britain, is even more of a planet-busting indulgence than beef feed-lots and hog cities, cruel and hideous as these are.
Over several years, as I became more aware of these inconvenient truths, I gradually dropped farmed meat from my diet. But I still consumed milk and eggs. I knew the dire environmental impacts of the crops (such as maize and soya) that dairy cows and chickens are fed. I knew about the waste, the climate change, the air pollution. But greed got the better of me. Cheese, yoghurt, butter, eggs – I loved them all.
Then something happened that broke down the wall of denial. Last September I arranged to spend a day beside the River Culm in Devon, renowned for its wildlife and beauty. However, the stretch I intended to explore had been reduced to a stinking ditch, almost lifeless except for some sewage fungus. I traced the pollution back to a dairy farm. A local man told me the disaster had been developing for months. But his efforts to persuade the Environment Agency (the government regulator) to take action had been fruitless.
I published the photos I had taken in the Guardian, and they caused a stir. Yet the Environment Agency still refused to take action. Its excuses were so preposterous that I realised this was more than simple incompetence. After publishing another article about this farce, I was contacted separately by two staff members at the agency. They told me they had been instructed to disregard all incidents of this kind. The cause, they believed, was political pressure from the government.
That did it. Why, I reasoned, should I support an industry the government refuses to regulate? Since then, I have cut almost all animal products from my diet. I’m not religious about it. If I’m at a friend’s house I might revert to vegetarianism. If I’m away from home, I will take a drop of milk in my tea. About once a fortnight I have an egg for my breakfast, perhaps once a month a fish I catch, or a herring or some anchovies (if you eat fish, take them from the bottom of the food chain). Perhaps three or four times a year, on special occasions, I will eat farmed meat: partly out of greed, partly because I don’t want to be even more of a spectre at the feast than I am already. This slight adaptation, I feel, also reduces the chances of a relapse.
I still eat roadkill when I can find it, and animals killed as agricultural pests whose bodies might otherwise be dumped. At the moment, while pigeons, deer, rabbits and squirrels are so abundant in this country and are being killed for purposes other than meat production, eating the carcasses seems to be without ecological consequence. Perhaps you could call me a pestitarian.
Even so, such meals are rare. My rough calculation suggests that 97% of my diet now consists of plants. I eat plenty of pulses, seeds and nuts and heaps of vegetables. That almost allows me to join the 500,000 people in Britain who are full vegans – but not quite. Of course, these choices also have impacts, but they are generally far lower than those of meat, dairy and eggs. Paradoxically, if you want to eat less soya, eat soya directly: eating animal products tends to mean consuming far more of this crop, albeit indirectly. Almost all the soya grown where rainforests once stood is used to feed animals. Replacing meat with soya reduces the clearance of natural vegetation, per kilogram of protein, by 96%.
After almost a year on this diet, I have dropped from 12 stone to 11. I feel better than I’ve done for years, and my craving for fat has all but disappeared. Cheese is no more appealing to me now than a lump of lard. My asthma has almost gone. There are a number of possible explanations, but I wouldn’t be surprised if it had something to do with cutting out milk. I have to think harder about what I cook, but that is no bad thing.
Meat eating is strongly associated with conventional images of masculinity, and some people appear to feel threatened by those who give up animal products. An Italian politician this week proposed jailing parents who impose a vegan diet on their children, in case it leaves them malnourished. Curiously, he failed to recommend the same sanction for rearing them on chips and sausages.
By chance, at a festival this summer, I again met the man from Devon who had tried to persuade the Environment Agency to take action on the River Culm. He told me that nothing has changed. When there’s a choice between protecting the living world and appeasing powerful lobby groups, most governments will take the second option. But we can withdraw our consent from this corruption. If you exercise that choice, I doubt you will regret it.
"Eating healthily is all about balance. Every now and then it’s perfectly OK to have pie for dinner or a nice slice of cake at teatime – treats are a part of life – but it's also important to recognise when we're pushing things too far. Indulgent food should be enjoyed and savoured, but only occasionally – it's important to remember that the majority of our diet should be made up of balanced, nutritious everyday foods. Make healthy food a priority in your life and allow it to bring your family and friends together. Learn to love how it makes you feel, how delicious it is and remember that a healthy balanced diet and regular exercise are the keys to a healthy lifestyle.
1. COOK FROM SCRATCH
This is one of the most important life skills you can learn. It allows you to have complete control of what goes into your food.
2. EAT A BALANCED DIET
Aim to eat a balanced diet that contains each of the food groups in the correct proportions.
3. VARIETY IS KEY – EAT THE RAINBOW
Fill your diet with a wide range of fruits, vegetables, lean meats, fish, eggs, pulses, nuts, seeds, wholegrains and naturally low fat dairy foods. When it comes to fruit and veg, different colours provide your body with the different nutrients it needs to stay strong and healthy – it's not just greens that are good for you!
4. UNDERSTAND WHAT YOU'RE EATING
Make an effort to learn about the food you're eating – we all need to understand where food comes from and how it affects our bodies.
5. EAT NUTRITIOUS CALORIES
Make sure the majority of your energy intake comes from nutritious calories that also provide your body with nutrients like vitamins, minerals, protein, fibre and good fats. Avoid empty calories.
6. DON'T SKIP BREAKFAST
Breakfast kick-starts your metabolism and helps you to be alert and awake throughout the day. Make sure you always eat a nutritious breakfast. Make it wholesome and make it count.
7. READ THE SMALL PRINT
It's important to read packaging correctly. Be aware of the recommended portion sizes, and the sugar, salt and saturated fat contents. Remember that not all E-numbers are bad, but too many is often a bad sign.
8. DRINK MORE WATER
Water is an essential part of your diet. Drink plenty of water and avoid empty calories from things such as fizzy drinks, energy drinks or juices with added sugar. Eat your calories don't drink them.
9. KEEP ACTIVE
Exercise is an extremely important factor in staying healthy so try to be as active as you can.
10. SLEEP WELL
Make sure you get enough sleep – it's an essential part of being healthy and directly affects how well we are able to learn, grow and act in life. While we're asleep, our bodies have that all-important time to repair."
Fonte e imagem: http://www.jamieoliver.com/healthy-living-tips/
With a mushroom filling
“Soft steamed buns stuffed with Asian-style mushrooms and hoisin sauce – people will go mad for these! ”
Cooks In 45 minutes
Difficulty Not too tricky
Vegetables, Dinner Party, Lighter New Year, Party food
Nutrition per serving
Calories 304 15%
Fat 8.3g 12%
Saturates 3.9g 20%
Protein 7.9g 18%
Carbs 52.4g 20%
Sugars 4.8g 5%
Salt 1.3g 22%
Of an adult's reference intake
hoisin sauce, to serve
2 cloves of garlic, peeled
1 thumb-sized piece of fresh ginger, peeled
½ bunch of fresh coriander
450 g mixed mushrooms , such as shitake and chestnut
2 tablespoons rice wine vinegar
2 tablespoons sweet chilli sauce
2 tablespoons low-salt soy sauce
4 spring onions
1 fresh red chilli
1 tablespoon sesame oil
1 x 400 g tin of light coconut milk
500 g self-raising flour , or 2 filled coconut milk tins of flour, plus extra for dusting
2 tablespoons sesame seeds
To make the filling, finely slice the garlic and ginger. Pick the coriander leaves and set aside, then finely slice the stalks. Heat a splash of groundnut oil in a large frying pan over a medium-high heat, then add the garlic, ginger and coriander stalks. Fry for around 3 minutes, or until golden. Slice the mushrooms, then add to the pan for around 5 minutes, or until lightly golden brown.
Add the vinegar, chilli sauce and soy, then cook for a further 5 minutes, or until the liquid has boiled and bubbled away and the mushrooms are golden brown and starting to caramelise. Transfer to a bowl.
Trim and finely slice the spring onions, then add the white part to the bowl. Deseed and finely slice the chilli, then add half to the bowl, reserving the rest for later. Stir in the sesame oil, then set aside.
Add the coconut milk, 2 heaped tins’ worth of flour and a good pinch of salt to a food processor. Whiz to a dough, then transfer to a flour-dusted surface and roll into a thick sausage. Cut into 12 equal-sized pieces, roll into balls, then flatten into rounds, roughly ½cm thick.
Equally divide the mushroom mixture between each of the 12 dough circles (you'll need roughly 1 tablespoon of filling per circle), making sure to leave a 2cm gap around the edges. Pull and fold the sides over the filling, pinching the edges together to seal. Place upside-down (so the scruffy edges are underneath) in double-layered, lightly greased muffin cases and divide between two bamboo steamer baskets.
Place a wok over a high heat, then fill with 1 litre of boiling water and pop the steamer baskets on top. Reduce the heat to medium and steam for around 12 minutes, or until piping hot through and puffed up.
Meanwhile, toast the sesame seeds in a small frying pan over a medium heat. Once the buns are ready, sprinkle over the seeds and the reserved spring onions and chilli. Tear the coriander leaves on top, then serve with hoisin sauce for dipping.